Qualley was born on October 23, 1994, in Montana. She is the daughter of Andie MacDowell, an actress and model, and Paul Qualley, a model, musician, contractor, and rancher. She has an older brother, Justin (born 1986), and an older sister, Rainey (born 1990). Rainey is also an actress, dancer, and model, as well as a singer-songwriter under the name Rainsford. The Qualley siblings spent their early years on a ranch in Missoula, Montana. Qualley's parents separated when she was five years old, and she subsequently split her time equally between each parent.